What is the role of the first sentence in each paragraph? The erosion of the middle of the labor market is easy to misinterpret, because its roots are multiple. During the s, the entry into the work force of an unprecedented number of women and of young adults born during the baby boom resulted in too many workers for the jobs available, and depressed wages.
The decline of the middle also has something to do with the explosive growth in world trade since As manufacturing technologies have become more mobile, and multinational firms more footloose, production jobs have migrated from the U.
In addition, technology itself has helped to provoke the shifts in the job market. For example, fewer American workers would have been needed to make steel in than in even if the pressures of global competition had not been a factor, because new machines have made many of their tasks redundant. Finally, the high rate of unemployment caused by these trends has tended to drive wages down further, especially at the low end, since it forces unskilled workers to compete for their jobs with unemployed people who are willing to do the work for less.
Although demographic shifts, stepped-up world trade, unemployment, and especially the advance of technology all have had an effect on the shape of the job market, middle-level jobs have been disappearing ultimately as a result of the ways in which technological gains are being distributed.
When a machine replaces a production worker, both the firm and consumers as a group benefit. The loss falls mainly on the worker who is displaced. If that loss is generalized to millions of high-paid workers, they suffer as a group, and the economy as a whole suffers a loss of worker purchasing power. Thus the lack of a mechanism to distribute some of the financial gains from technology to the work force comes back to haunt the entire economy. You will have to determine which causes or effects you're going to write about.
For instance, if there are too many causes for you to deal with in the scope of your essay, you'll have to decide what are the main causes, the ones you have to treat, and then suggest to your reader that there are other, relatively minor, causes outside the scope of your essay. Even in an essay as extensive as Kutter's, there are surely things he could have said but chose not to.
The cause and effect essay can end in a number of ways. It might be enough for your paper to point out causes or effects that people might not have thought of before, or to sort out those causes or effects so that people can grasp them with fresh insight or in a newly organized fashion.
On the other hand, your essay might lead to a call for action based on patterns of cause and effect that you have perceived. The essay below , for example, from Mother Jones magazine, ends with a plea for Americans to change the way they use antibiotics in situations where the antibiotics won't do any good.
The one caution you have to keep in mind is not to become logically simplistic when considering causes. There were monumental economic and political causes behind that war; without those "other" causes there might not have been a war at all. There is an important logical fallacy see the section on Logic called Post hoc, ergo propter hoc "After this, therefore because of this".
We can't assume that just because something follows something else chronologically that the earlier event caused the later event. This series of causes leads to the effect of a sharpened pencil. Open window A and fly kite B. String C lifts small door D allowing moths E to escape and eat red flannel shirt F. As weight of shirt becomes less, shoe G steps on switch H which heats electric iron I and burns hole in pants J.
Smoke K enters hole in tree L , smoking out opossum M which jumps into basket N , pulling rope O and lifting cage P , allowing woodpecker Q to chew wood from pencil R , exposing lead. Emergency knife S is always handy in case opossum or the woodpecker gets sick and can't work. How far can that paper go? The writer has to determine a cutoff point for pursuing causes back to the Adam and Eve of all causes.
A paper that included the causes of this weather phenomenon would be an altogether different matter, also. A cause and effect paper often appears to be structured along the lines of a Process Essay , and the structure can, in fact, be similar.
The difference, of course, is that a process essay explains how something works or how something came to be as it is, whereas a cause and effect essay explains why something works as it does or why it came to be what it is. Sample Student Essay We have included here a sample cause-and-effect essay that briefly explores the reasons causes that soccer will not "make it big" in the United States.
It was written by a community college student, Dewey Cheatham, who graciously gave us permission to reprint his essay here. Every four years, the world championship of soccer, the World Cup, is watched by literally billions all over the world, beating out the United States professional football's Superbowl by far. It is estimated that 1. And it is also a genuine world championship, involving teams from 32 countries in the final rounds, unlike the much more parochial and misnamed World Series in American baseball that doesn't even involve Japan or Cuba, two baseball hotbeds.
But although soccer has become an important sport in the American sports scene, it will never make inroads into the hearts and markets of American sports the way that football, basketball, hockey, baseball, and even tennis and golf have done. There are many reasons for this.
Nearly fans showed up, which shows that soccer is, indeed, popular in the United States. However, the story of the game was buried near the back of the newspaper's sports section, and there was certainly no television coverage.
In fact, the biggest reason for soccer's failure as a mass appeal sport in the United States is that it doesn't conform easily to the demands of television. Basketball succeeds enormously in America because it regularly schedules what it calls "television time-outs" as well as the time-outs that the teams themselves call to re-group, not to mention half-times and, on the professional level, quarter breaks.
Those time-outs in the action are ideally made for television commercials. And television coverage is the lifeblood of American sports.
College basketball lives for a game scheduled on CBS or ESPN highly recruited high school players are more likely to go to a team that regularly gets national television exposure , and we could even say that television coverage has dictated the pace and feel of American football. Anyone who has attended a live football game knows how commercial time-outs slow the game and sometimes, at its most exciting moments, disrupt the flow of events.
Just as there are usually several causes for anything, there are a multitude of effects that proceed from any one cause. Don't try to address a long chain of effects in one paper. Acknowledge that many effects of various kinds exist, and then limit your discussion to the most important ones. Transition words that suggest to the reader that you are discussing effects include the following:.
Employees at companies that offer flexible work schedules are more productive and file fewer claims for mental-health benefits; consequently, the number of companies offering flextime is on the rise.
As a matter of argument, you could claim that the example above shows two linked effects of the flextime policy: First, it caused employees to be more productive; and second, their enhanced productivity, in turn, caused more companies to adopt flextime.
Linked causes and effects are typical of this type of paper. Predicting results Cause and effect papers often make predictions based on known facts, trends, and developments. Prediction moves from the known and observable into the unknown and possible. Prediction tries to answer questions like these: What are the possible or likely consequences?
Are these results likely to have great impact on my life or the lives of others? Are these results likely to have great impact on shaping public policy, society, or history? What preconditions would have to exist before my predictions could come about? If you choose to make predictions, as is common, for example, in political science, education, science, and philosophy, be sure to use credible evidence and strong reasoning.
If you do not handle predictions with finesse and ground them in established fact, they are apt to appear fantastic and unbelievable. Avoid overstating your case; use language couched in an appropriate degree of uncertainty might, may well be, is likely to, can expect, is entirely possible.
Signal words and verb forms such as these suggest to the reader that you are making the move from observation to prediction:. If the governor fails to clearly declare his position and take a leadership role in reforming the state's workers' compensation system, voters are likely to take matters into their own hands and call for a statewide referendum.
A cause and effect paper relies heavily on your analysis of the situation. Although there are many ways to interpret any situation and the effects that it has produced, in the end the convincing power of your paper depends on specific evidence, clear and convincing language, and logical development.
Writing Cause and Effect Papers. Cause and effect papers answer questions like the following "A" is your topic: Why did A happen? As you write, use the transitions, or signal words, that tell readers you are demonstrating causal relationships between your ideas: Led to Because Cause s Reasons s Explanation s So The following example names the cause first, followed by the effect:
To write a cause and effect essay, you’ll need to determine a scenario in which one action or event caused certain effects to secretsofengraving.tk, explain what took place and why! This essay allows us to identify patterns and explain why .
Apr 25, · Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free secretsofengraving.tks:
Essay explains many effects of college education, including: highter income, more life satisfaction, confidence among others. Sample cause and effect essay on the value of college education A person can immediately tell if . What makes good cause and effect essay topics and how can one get cause and effect essay ideas? It can be daunting for students to come up with their own cause and effect essay themes, that’s why we’ve formed a long list to browse and think about.
Mar 15, · 2. Cause and Effect Essay Examples for College Cause and Effect - Words. Mental Illness Myth 1: Psychiatric disorders are not true medical illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. People who have a mental illness are just "crazy." or under effect of witchcraft. Cause and Effect To write a cause and effect essay, you’ll need to determine a scenario in which one action or event caused certain effects to occur. Then, explain what took place and why. Then, explain what took place and why.