So simple, in fact, that we have been able to explain how to do it completely in just 4 steps see below. If nothing else, secondary research avoids the all-so-tiring efforts usually involved with primary research. Like recruiting your participants, choosing and preparing your measures, and spending days or months collecting your data. That said, you do still need to know how to do secondary research. Which is what you're here for. So, go make a decent-sized mug of your favourite hot beverage consider a glass of water , too then come back and get comfy.
What's secondary research all about? Advantages of secondary research. Disadvantages of secondary research. Methods and purposes of secondary research. Secondary research process in 4 steps. Develop your research question s. Identify a secondary data set. Evaluate a secondary data set.
Prepare and analyse secondary data. As you probably already know, primary research is when the researcher collects the data himself or herself. In contrast, secondary research involves data that has been collected by somebody else previously. So to recap, secondary research involves re-analysing, interpreting, or reviewing past data. The role of the researcher is always to specify how this past data informs his or her current research.
In contrast to primary research, secondary research is easier, particularly because the researcher is less involved with the actual process of collecting the data. Furthermore, secondary research requires less time and less money i.
TABLE 1 outlines the differences between primary and secondary research: One of the most obvious advantages is that, compared to primary research, secondary research is inexpensive. Primary research usually requires spending a lot of money. For instance, members of the research team should be paid salaries. There are often travel and transportation costs. You may need to pay for office space and equipment, and compensate your participants for taking part.
There may be other overhead costs too. These costs do not exist when doing secondary research. Although researchers may need to purchase secondary data sets, this is always less costly than if the research were to be conducted from scratch. As an undergraduate or graduate student, your dissertation project won't need to be an expensive endeavour. Thus, it is useful to know that you can further reduce costs, by using freely available secondary data sets.
Most students value another important advantage of secondary research, which is that secondary research saves you time. Primary research usually requires months spent recruiting participants, providing them with questionnaires, interviews, or other measures, cleaning the data set, and analysing the results. With secondary research, you can skip most of these daunting tasks; instead, you merely need to select, prepare, and analyse an existing data set.
In the past, students needed to go to libraries and spend hours trying to find a suitable data set. New technologies make this process much less time-consuming. In most cases, you can find your secondary data through online search engines or by contacting previous researchers via email.
A third important advantage of secondary research is that you can base your project on a large scope of data. If you wanted to obtain a large data set yourself, you would need to dedicate an immense amount of effort. What's more, if you were doing primary research, you would never be able to use longitudinal data in your graduate or undergraduate project, since it would take you years to complete.
This is because longitudinal data involves assessing and re-assessing a group of participants over long periods of time. When using secondary data, however, you have an opportunity to work with immensely large data sets that somebody else has already collected. Thus, you can also deal with longitudinal data, which may allow you to explore trends and changes of phenomena over time.
With secondary research, you are relying not only on a large scope of data, but also on professionally collected data. This is yet another advantage of secondary research. For instance, data that you will use for your secondary research project has been collected by researchers who are likely to have had years of experience in recruiting representative participant samples, designing studies, and using specific measurement tools.
If you had collected this data yourself, your own data set would probably have more flaws, simply because of your lower level of expertise when compared to these professional researchers. The first such disadvantage is that your secondary data may be, to a greater or lesser extent, inappropriate for your own research purposes. This is simply because you have not collected the data yourself. When you collect your data personally, you do so with a specific research question in mind.
This makes it easy to obtain the relevant information. Thus, although secondary data may provide you with a large scope of professionally collected data, this data is unlikely to be fully appropriate to your own research question. There are several reasons for this. For instance, you may be interested in the data of a particular population, in a specific geographic region, and collected during a specific time frame. However, your secondary data may have focused on a slightly different population, may have been collected in a different geographical region, or may have been collected a long time ago.
Apart from being potentially inappropriate for your own research purposes, secondary data could have a different format than you require. But the secondary data set may contain a categorical age variable; for example, participants might have indicated an age group they belong to e.
A secondary data set may contain too few ethnic categories e. Differences such as these mean that secondary data may not be perfectly appropriate for your research. The above two disadvantages may lead to yet another one: As noted above, secondary data was collected with a different research question in mind, and this may limit its application to your own research purpose.
Unfortunately, the list of disadvantages does not end here. An additional weakness of secondary data is that you have a lack of control over the quality of data. All researchers need to establish that their data is reliable and valid. But if the original researchers did not establish the reliability and validity of their data, this may limit its reliability and validity for your research as well.
To establish reliability and validity, you are usually advised to critically evaluate how the data was gathered, analysed, and presented. But here lies the final disadvantage of doing secondary research: You might be faced with a lack of information on recruitment procedures, sample representativeness, data collection methods, employed measurement tools and statistical analyses, and the like.
This may require you to take extra steps to obtain such information, if that is possible at all. TABLE 2 provides a full summary of advantages and disadvantages of secondary research: Conducting secondary research is much cheaper than doing primary research Inappropriateness: Secondary data may not be fully appropriate for your research purposes Saves time: Secondary research takes much less time than primary research Wrong format: Secondary data may have a different format than you require Accessibility: Secondary data is usually easily accessible from online sources.
May not answer your research question: Secondary data was collected with a different research question in mind Large scope of data: You can rely on immensely large data sets that somebody else has collected Lack of control over the quality of data: Secondary data may lack reliability and validity, which is beyond your control Professionally collected data: Secondary data has been collected by researchers with years of experience Lack of sufficient information: Original authors may not have provided sufficient information on various research aspects.
At this point, we should ask: Initially, you can use a secondary data set in isolation — that is, without combining it with other data sets. You dig and find a data set that is useful for your research purposes and then base your entire research on that set of data. You do this when you want to re-assess a data set with a different research question in mind. Suppose that, in your research, you want to investigate whether pregnant women of different nationalities experience different levels of anxiety during different pregnancy stages.
Based on the literature, you have formed an idea that nationality may matter in this relationship between pregnancy and anxiety.
If you wanted to test this relationship by collecting the data yourself, you would need to recruit many pregnant women of different nationalities and assess their anxiety levels throughout their pregnancy. It would take you at least a year to complete this research project. Instead of undertaking this long endeavour, you thus decide to find a secondary data set — one that investigated for instance a range of difficulties experienced by pregnant women in a nationwide sample.
The original research question that guided this research could have been: You are, therefore, re-assessing their data set with your own research question in mind.
Your research may, however, require you to combine two secondary data sets. At this final step, the researcher should seek actionable findings to move the project forward. It is important to look back at the list of research questions from the first step and ask if they have all been answered and if there is any new question been raised.
The most important goal is to come up with future actions for the project. During the step of gathering data, researcher should make sure to verify the credibility of the information coming from the Internet.
Screenshots or another method for saving important websites should be used for reference since the online data might be changed without notice. For data such as reports and statistics, the best way to verify their credibility is to consult the appendix and references. Generally, the more detailed the references, the more trustable the data. Secondary Research is of value when information is compared and analyzed, when the researcher performs a critical review of the data, and when the researcher comes up with actionable findings to move the project forward.
After the brainstorming process, several ideas and themes had been chosen for mock-ups. The ideas and themes were then divided into styles, and secondary researches had been conducted based on those styles as topics. Most information was in the form of visual data. Information was arranged into mood boards for analysis. These findings led to a search for a new approach to the campaign that could make the Fall Winter ad unique.
A brainstorming process was used once again and a final campaign evolved that met the expectations of stakeholders. One can gather primary data or information through qualitative research methods as well as quantitative research methods. Primary market research is the most common type of a market research method and is also the most valuable type. It is a method that only answers specific questions and not irrelevant issues.
Secondary market r esearch. As opposed to primary market research, secondary market research is a research technique that does not aim to gather information from scratch but relies on already available information from multiple sources. This research focuses on data or information that was collected by other people and is available for either free or paid use for others. Secondary market research takes into account many different sources for collection of information including government data, office data, newspapers, magazines, the internet, etc.
One of the benefits of doing secondary market research is that it is mostly free and takes a lot less time. Some common examples of qualitative research work include doing face to face interviews, being part of focus groups, etc. Quantitative market research is a kind of market research work that is based on hard facts and statistical data rather than the feelings and opinions of the customers or consumers.
This type of research can prove useful both in terms of primary market research and secondary market research. Some of the common examples of quantitative research include exit surveys, questionnaires, on-site fieldwork and the shopping bag survey. In fact, another example of quantitative research includes researching of the previously existing financial reports, research papers.
This type of research comes out with a wide range of statistics and helps to find out the size of the market as well. The following are the five Primary market research techniques that are most commonly used and applied:. One of the main ways used to conduct primary market research is through focus groups. This method involves getting a group of people in a room or a place and asking them insightful questions regarding the product, its development, their preferences, and feedback, etc.
These types of focus groups can be run or conducted at any location feasible for the company or business. These days, with advancements in technology and the internet, it is possible to conduct them virtually as well, through the method of video conferencing. But the main thing here is that the group of people brought together have something in common, for example, either they should belong to the same age group, the same gender and so on.
This division of the group or the selection process must depend on the audience targeted or the product of service of the company. Participants in such focus groups are then compensated by either free coupons, vouchers, gifts or money, etc. Focus groups fall under the qualitative research method and help businesses know a lot about customer or market trends. Another superb and highly effective way to conduct primary market research is through surveys and questionnaires. One of the most common examples of this research method is the feedback form given to customers at the time of billing at a restaurant.
Surveys are also conducted in the form of web questionnaires these days that enable businesses to collect a lot of feedback and then analyze it for further administration. There are two major observation techniques or research methods used in primary market research, and they are observation through interaction and communication with the subject and observation through no interaction and communication with the subject.
This form of research method comes under the quantitative primary research since through it; researchers evaluate or measure the behavior of the respondents or the users in general. This is more of a personal approach in comparison to surveys and questionnaires, etc. This method of primary research involves scientific tests where hypotheses and variables, etc.
This is a quantitative type of market research which may either be controlled out in the field or within controlled environments. In order to understand this form of research, here is an example that you can refer to:
source url Secondary Research is a common research method; it involves using information that others have gathered through primary research. shimoga gay dating Advantages The information already exists and is readily available -> quick & low cost.
Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, in which data are collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments.
Learn the difference between primary research performed to meet specific needs and (the more general) secondary research. Learn the difference between primary research performed to meet specific needs and (the more general) secondary research. Learn About Using Cross Tabs as a Quantitative Research Method. Talking Points for Convincing. Secondary data is one type of quantitative data that has already been collected by someone else for a different purpose to yours. For example, this could mean using.
Best Secondary Research Guide: Learn Examples, Types, Methods, Sources and Definition, Difference between Primary and Secondary Research. Secondary research is defined as an analysis and interpretation of primary research. The method of writing secondary research is to collect primary research that is relevant to a writing topic and.