A sample of tangibles Seeking information from a large group can be very expensive so researchers use sampling techniques and use the information they collect form the sample to make inferences about the population as a whole.
Example of sample survey is the Coleman Report A sample survey of intangibles Public opinion pools are examples of studies measuring intangible constructs. Opinion is not directly observable and is inferred from responses made by subjects to questionnaires or interviews. The Florida presidential election debacle can be attributed to measuring an intangible using a sample to predict how the state will vote.
The newscasters reported that Florida had voted for Gore whereas what turned to be the fact is that most votes belonged to Bush. Surveys classified according to the time dimension Two types of surveys are classified according to the time of data collection; longitudinal and cross- sectional surveys. Longitudinal surveys They gather information at different points in time in order to study changes over extended periods of time. For example, studying the development of quantitative reasoning in elementary school children would select a sample of first graders and administers a measure of quantitative reasoning.
This same group would be followed through successive grade levels and tested each year to assess how quantitative reasoning abilities develop over time. Panel studies The same subjects are surveyed at different times over an extended period of time. See the above example. Trend studies Different people from the same general population thus each year from 6th graders are surveyed over at different times perhaps , , to understand the trend of this particular population.
Cohort studies A specific population is followed over a length of time. For example, school graduating class of might be followed over a length of time. From a list of graduates, a random sample is drawn at different points in time and data are collected from that sample. Thus the population remains the same during the study, but the individuals surveyed are different each time.
Cross-sectional surveys These surveys are used to study a sample of a population at a single point in time. A cross sectional study would compare quantitative reasoning of a sample of students from grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The cross sectional survey is the method of choice if you want to gather the data at one point in time. Six basic steps are involved in survey research 1. Construct a complete list of all individuals in the population. Select a representative sample 4. Field test the instrument.
Personal interview — flexible, questions can be repeated, or their meaning explained, personal contact increases the likelihood that the individual will respond, the main disadvantage is the expense, and a possibility of interviewer bias. Questionnaires have a low return rate, furthermore non-response rate may not be randomly distributed in the population making generalizability questionable. Email surveys are becoming more popular.
They have prompter returns and have lower item non-response and more complete answers to open ended questions. Plan for a prior email notification and you are likely to have more response, try to address each individual person instead of using a mailing list.
Internet surveys the advantage of these is a similar format for all respondents, and are easier for the respondent to navigate — e. High response rate is one big advantage and the ease in reaching the participants. The researcher can provide assistance. The main disadvantage is the researcher is restricted in terms of where and when the questionnaire can be administered. Please respond to these questions and bring your responses to class on July Survey or Descriptive research questions.
This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. The following YouTube video, Research Methods — Surveys, provides an overview of the use of surveys as a means of data collection in research. The topics in this video will be discussed briefly in this introductory module and will be described more thoroughly in subsequent modules.
A survey is a method of gathering information from a subset sample of a particular population of interest. Surveys are commonly used to ask questions about things such as behaviors, opinions, attitudes, beliefs, symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Surveys are useful in that a researcher is able to gather information that is not likely be to be available from another source and the information gathered usually provides an unbiased representation of the target population.
Surveys also provide a means of standardizing the data collection because the same data is collected from every respondent. There are two broad categories of surveys: A questionnaire is typically a paper-and-pencil or computerized instrument that ask respondents a standard list of questions that are typically short, closed-ended questions.
Questionnaires may be given to individuals or may be administered to groups. Interviews are a more personal form surveying that allows the researcher to work directly with each respondent and ask follow up questions if necessary.
Conducting interviews is obviously more time-consuming but may be very helpful when trying to gather information regarding opinions or impressions. Once the overall design of the survey has been determined, there are a variety of other factors to consider that impact the overall design of the project. Following is a list of the most important issues that will need to be addressed and links for additional information on each. Once the survey has been designed and delivered, the data that is collected will need to be analyzed.
Survey data is slightly different than data from other descriptive methods in that it may lend itself better to quantitative analysis. For example, the researcher can examine the number of respondents that choose response A over B or C. This is especially true with data collected from written or computer based surveys and questionnaires. Surveys that are done as interviews may provide more open-ended data in a narrative form that must be analyzed using qualitative methods.
When choosing a descriptive method for a research study, surveys also offer the advantage of being able to reach a larger number of participants and collect a greater amount of data. Survey Fundamentals — This resource offers an overview of the survey process including writing questions, response rates, sampling, and so forth. Research Methods — The link below briefly describes ways in which data is commonly collected, including several types of surveys. Introduction to Survey Research — The following set of slides provides information about the purpose and use of surveys in research, as well as an introduction as to how conduct survey research.
The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods — Describes the 3 basic types of descriptive research methods — observational, case study, and survey methods. This pin will expire , on Change.
This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Survey Method This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. Describe the purpose and use of surveys in descriptive research. Describe basic survey designs.
MEANING OF THE TERM- DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY RESEARCH METHOD NEERU SALARIA INTRODUCTION According to Best and Kahn (), “The term descriptive research has often been used incorrectly to describe three types of investigation that are different. Perhaps their superficial similarities have obscured their difference.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.
Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types. What Is Survey Research? - Definition, Methods & Types; Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types Related Study. Survey Method. This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. Learning Objectives: Describe the purpose and use of surveys in descriptive research. Describe basic survey designs.
Descriptive research is “aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than was possible without employing this method.”. Most often, organizations will use it as a method to reveal and measure the strength of a target group’s opinion, attitude, or behaviour with regards to a given subject. But another common use of descriptive research would be the surveying of demographical traits in a certain group (age, income, marital status, gender, etc.).