The idea previously adopted to confront this situation was to separate the races in order to avoid conflict that would happen due to the enmity that had already been established between the black and white people.
However, this sounded to be unfair since most of the white facilities were well maintained while the black ones were overcrowded and were poorly made. This was despite the fact that both the races paid equal taxes and deserved equal treatment. Freedman 90 observes that the idea was challenged in court by black lawyers and other civil rights activists with no avail because powerful political forces were frustrating the processes.
All these happenings meant that the legal system was not trustworthy among the black community triggering a mood of change that was to be phenomenal since then. The peak of it all was the Rosa Parks incident of refusing to sit in Black Only segment which gave the black participants the courage to face the challenges through only one method of redress namely, civil defiance. Civil defiance or civil disobedience can be defined as the deliberate knowing and breakage of the law of the land in order to gain a particular objective usually a social purpose Caulfield, 2.
This means that all the avenues of seeking attention to address a particular vice in the society would have failed to work. The pioneers of this movement in that period chose these methods to pass their point across as it was the best options. Notably, all of them were prominent people in the black society who not only were popular but also were very learned Caulfield, 2.
For instance, Jo Ann Robinson was a professor in a prestigious university who made a mistake of sitting in an empty all-white bus but stopped from sitting in it, or better still Pastor Vernon Jones who was also made to stand up for a young lad who was white because he was black. All these people had a common thing that made the justification of the civil disobedience be the only option of redress.
Despite the fact that these originators of the boycott knew what the law said about such acts done to citizens it was almost impossible to make a legal suit that was not to be lost. This was the first justification of civil disobedience as it was to get the attention of the public. Many black leaders were put away in jail when they tried to follow the correct channel of justice.
Most of the issues facing the black community were hard to act in court as they were not recognized directly in the constitution. In addition, those matters were not provable in court for the victims to be adequately compensated Freedman, The other justifiable reason why the users of the method adopted it was the effort of the local authorities to divide the black community.
This is portrayed in the incident of when the city commissioners decided to approach some leaders of the black community to bribe them in order to stop the boycott but the plan failed. This made the mass action grow bigger as the faith in the authorities was lost. However, such actions from authorities are often responsible for public anger and resentment hence an unprecedented reactions.
According to Caulfield 2 , in addition to that, direct violation of basic rights is the most common justification of the civil disobedience. This is where a group of people feel that their rights are not adequately represented by the authorities in place. The said group may seek alternatives in order to address such oppression which more often than not results in uprisings.
The civil actions have an effect of major concern that is difficult to ignore as we are to see shortly. An issue that many scholars have had a difficult time to define is what consists of civil disobedience.
Using the Montgomery Bus Boycott as a case study where acts of vandalism and riots were used in some quarters, to some extent it sped up the process of civil right redress.
However some scholars totally disagree with this observation Freedman, Such scholars such as Carl Cohen see civil disobedience should be non violent, conscientious and action should be in a manner that is likely to show respect to the existing authorities.
This view can be justified in a democracy where the majority carries the day. However it does not address the position of the minority.
High school essays, college essays and university essays on any topics. This relatively obscure act revitalized the Civil Rights movement. When the NAACP became aware of the arrest, they immediately saw it as an opportunity to challenge segregation on Public transportation. They called all of the local political and religious leaders together and asked them to support a one-day boycott in protest to Mrs.
One of the pastors called was a young minister named Martin Luther King Jr. The boycott was an immediate success.
On the day of the boycott, only 8 Blacks were observed riding buses. Based on the success of this action, the Montgomery Improvement Association was formed. The young minister from Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Martin King, was unanimously elected as president of the association. There first action was to plan a permanent boycott of the bus system until three demands were met: When these demands were met, Blacks would again ride the city buses.
City officials were amused by the demands. After the first month of the boycott, it was not so amusing. The blacks of Montgomery would boycott the buses on the day of Parks' trial, Monday, December 5. By midnight, 35, flyers were being mimeographed to be sent home with black schoolchildren, informing their parents of the planned boycott. Meanwhile, black participation in the boycott was much larger than even optimists in the community had anticipated.
Nixon and some ministers decided to take advantage of the momentum, forming the Montgomery Improvement Association MIA to manage the boycott, and they electedReverend Dr. As appeals and related lawsuits wended their way through the courts, all the way up to the U. Supreme Court, the boycott engendered anger in much of Montgomery's white population as well as some violence, and Nixon's and Dr. King's homes were bombed. The violence didn't deter the boycotters or their leaders, however, and the drama in Montgomery continued to gain attention from the national and international press.
On November 13, , the Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional; the boycott ended December 20, a day after the Court's written order arrived in Montgomery. Parks-who had lost her job and experienced harassment all year-became known as "the mother of the civil rights movement. Her husband, brother and mother all died of cancer between and In the years following her retirement, she traveled to lend her support to civil-rights events and causes and wrote an autobiography, "Rosa Parks: When she died at age 92 on October 24, , she became the first woman in the nation's history to lie in state at the U.
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Montgomery Bus Boycott essaysDuring the first half of the twentieth century segregation was the way of life in the south. It was an excepted, and even though it was morally wrong, it still went on as if there was nothing wrong at all. African-Americans were treated as if they were a somehow sub-h.
- The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in in Montgomery, Alabama. The law said that black people had to sit in the back of the bus while the the white people sat in the front.
History essay: Montgomery bus boycott There was once a time when blacks were only slaves in America, they had no rights and no freedom. Nowadays segregation has been abolished, racism and discrimination have been broken down and blacks are now able to live their lives free as equal citizens in the American society. The Montgomery bus boycott also emphasised the importance and the potential of the black economic power. Black shoppers were unable to go downtown without travelling on public buses so businesses owned by the whites lost in excess of one million dollars.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott had propositions that reached far beyond the desegregation of public transportation. The boycott impelled the Civil Rights Movement into national awareness and helped Martin Luther King become a major icon in history. Essay on Montgomery Bus Boycott On December 1, , a Black woman named Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a White man in Montgomery, Alabama. This relatively obscure act revitalized the Civil Rights movement.