For mothers who had gestational diabetes during their first pregnancy, the probability that it will occur in subsequent pregnancies is approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, some patients may subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. After pregnancy, diabetes type 1 or 2 may occur and will require obligatory treatment.
The role of genetic factors as a cause of diabetes has been proven definitively. This is the main etiological factor for diabetes. IDDM is considered to be a polygenic disease which is based on at least two of the mutant genes in diabetic chromosome 6. They are associated with the HLA system D-locus , which determines the individual, genetically determined response of the body and B cells to various antigens.
The hypothesis of polygenic inheritance of IDDM suggests that diabetes is caused from two mutant genes or two groups of genes that have a recessive inherited predisposition to autoimmune lesions of the insular apparatus or increased sensitivity of B cells to viral antigens or attenuated antiviral immunity.
Genetic susceptibility is linked with particular genes of HLA systems, which are considered markers of such a predisposition. Patients with a genetic predisposition to IDDM have an altered response to environmental factors. They have weakened antiviral immunity, and they are extremely susceptible to cytotoxic damage to the B cells by viruses and chemical agents. Viral infection may be a factor that provokes the development of IDDM.
The most common occurrence of IDDM clinically is preceded by the following viral infections: The role of viral infection is confirmed by seasonality in the incidence of IDDM development often, the first diagnosed cases of IDDM among children occur in autumn and winter months, with a peak incidence in October and January , the detection of high titers of antibodies to the virus in the blood of patients with IDDM, and the detection by immunofluorescent methods for studying viral particles in the islets of Langerhans in people who have died of IDDM.
The role of viral infections in the development of IDDM is confirmed in experimental studies. Viral infections among individuals with a genetic predisposition to IDDM are involved in the development of the disease as follows:. First stage — a genetic predisposition, due to the presence of certain antigens in the HLA system, as well as genes of chromosomes 11 and Second stage — the initiation of the autoimmune process in islands of B cells influenced with viruses, cytotoxic agents and any other unknown factors.
A crucial point in this step is the expression of B cells HLA-DR-antigen and glutamic acid, and therefore, they become autoantigens that cause the development of autoimmune response reactions. Third stage — the stage of the active immunological process with formation of antibodies to B cells, insulin and autoimmune insulitis development.
Fourth stage — the progressive reduction of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose 1-phase secretion of insulin. Fifth stage — clinical diabetes the manifestation of diabetes. Its length depends on the severity and degree of B cell damage, their ability to regenerate, and the level of residual insulin secretion, as well as the severity and frequency of related viral infections. Sixth stage — the complete destruction of b-cells, and a complete lack of insulin secretion and C-peptide.
Clinical signs of diabetes form and insulin treatment becomes necessary again. The provided diabetes essay sample is a perfect example of an academic paper that should be written by students. Nevertheless, we should warn you that the entirety of this text or its parts cannot be used in your own paper. The consequence of such an action is that your mentor may consider that your work is plagiarism. However, you have a way out of this situation: The provided sample academic paper was created by a professional writer from our service.
Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Exercise, weight loss and certain medications may reduce insulin resistance. It is the degree to which cells respond to a particular dose of insulin by lowering blood glucose levels.
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Older aged people are affected by Type 2 diabetes. This essay will also briefly describes about the Ottawa Charter and one of the action areas of it: Develop Personal Skills to address the health issue, Type 2 diabetes, in older aged people.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is where the body cells cannot use glucose properly for lack of or resistance to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to serious complications over time if left untreated.
Type 2 diabetes is a very serious disease with many life threatening consequences, but if it is manage properly through preventative measures, diabetics can live a normal life. According to (Diabetes UK ) Type 2 diabetes can remain undetected for ten years or more and 50 per cent of people show signs of complications when diagnosed. Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Type II Diabetes Type II diabetes is a severe form of diabetes caused by inadequate production of insulin and resulting in anomalous metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Diabetes usually appears in children and slowly progresses by the increase of sugar levels in the blood stream and urine.
In the following essay I will be talking about type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is on the increase and is now a very prominent public health issue. I have a great interest in the metabolic disease as both my maternal and paternal grandparents suffered from it. Nov 20, · Essay on Pathophysiology: Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is metabolic disorder characterized by the high level of hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. This is a serious health problems that undermines the quality of life of patients, may trigger serious complications and eventually result in the death of patients.5/5(1).