If the faction is in the minority then republican government clearly controls this situation by regular vote of the majority. But what if a majority, how are the rights of the minority and the public good protected? The answer to this is the primary object of this paper. Another purpose is to continue the argument begun in the last paper that even though the Union of States would be large with many diverse economic and social issues a Republican Government would be the preferred form of government.
Democracies have a poor track record because the majority eventually tramples on the rights of the minority and often does not protect the public good.
There are two great points of difference in favor of the Republic, the delegation of the government to representatives elected by the citizens and the greater number of citizens and area over which it may be applied.
In a Republic it is favorable to have representatives elected with a greater number of citizens to protect against the election of unworthy candidates and to elect the people with the most attractive merit. A large Republic with many representatives is necessary to guard against the cabals of a few but should not be so large as to create the confusion of the multitude.
The argument is extended to favor the larger Republic formed by the union of the states as opposed to Republics for individual states which would not be of adequate size to thwart the action of factions. A pure Democracy cannot be an effective government if the governed occupy a large area with many citizens and diverse interests because the requirement for every citizen to assemble and vote on every issue would be impractical and unworkable. However, he feared factions that held negative ideals and worked against the best interests of society.
One of the most popular contemporary interpretations of Paper 10 takes the advice on factions to extend to political parties in general. By this token, Madison suggests that political parties are dangerous because they can work against the public, but he sees no way to halt them from forming. Instead, he suggests a representative republic form of government where men vote for representatives who vote for laws.
Choosing that form instead of a direct, true democracy ensures that the factions that gain power will not have the ability to harm the rights of others. The paper itself suggests that the government must either limit the forming of factions or control their effects. He says that the only ways to prevent the forming of factions are to eliminate liberty or to create a homogenous society, and since both are impossible, the government must choose to control the effects of the factions.
News and World Report , No. The historian Charles A. Beard identified Federalist No. In his book An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States , Beard argued that Madison produced a detailed explanation of the economic factors that lay behind the creation of the Constitution.
At the outset of his study, Beard makes his point when he writes that Madison provided "a masterly statement of the theory of economic determinism in politics" Beard , p. Later in his study, Beard repeated his point, only providing more emphasis. Douglass Adair attributes the increased interest in the tenth number to Charles A. Beard 's book An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution , published in Adair also contends that Beard's selective focus on the issue of class struggle , and his political progressivism , has colored modern scholarship on the essay.
According to Adair, Beard reads No. Garry Wills is a noted critic of Madison's argument in Federalist No. In his book Explaining America , he adopts the position of Robert Dahl in arguing that Madison's framework does not necessarily enhance the protections of minorities or ensure the common good.
But these weapons for delay are given to the minority irrespective of its factious or nonfactious character; and they can be used against the majority irrespective of its factious or nonfactious character.
What Madison prevents is not faction, but action. What he protects is not the common good but delay as such". For instance, United States Supreme Court justice John Paul Stevens cites the paper for the statement, "Parties ranked high on the list of evils that the Constitution was designed to check".
See The Federalist, No. Madison's argument that restraining liberty to limit faction is an unacceptable solution has been used by opponents of campaign finance limits. Justice Clarence Thomas , for example, invoked Federalist No. Rather than adopting the repressive 'cure' for faction that the majority today endorses, the Framers armed individual citizens with a remedy".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed January 22, See also "The Federalist Papers: Volume 1, Chapter 4, Document University of Chicago Press. Retrieved January 22, Referenced November 20, Volume 1, Chapter 17, Document Volume 1, Chapter 7, Document 7. The Grecian republics were of small extent; so also was that of the Romans.
Both of these, it is true, in process of time, extended their conquests over large territories of country; and the consequence was, that their governments were changed from that of free governments to those of the most tyrannical that ever existed in the world". Jones , U. Brown , U. Fame and the Founding Fathers.
The Federalist with Letters of "Brutus". The MacMillan Company, Are We to Be a Nation? Harvard University Press, University Press of Kansas, De Pauw, Linda Grant. New York State and the Federal Constitution. Cornell University Press, The Political Theory of The Federalist. University of Chicago Press, The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers.
Politics, Literature, and the American Language, Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, The Summer of The Men Who Invented the Constitution. The Creation of the American Republic, — The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States.
Edited by Jacob E. Wesleyan University Press, Edited by Henry B. Edited by Paul Leicester Ford.
The Federalist Papers study guide contains a biography of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
A summary of Federalist Essays No - No in The Founding Fathers's The Federalist Papers (). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Federalist Papers () and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, .
The Federalist Summary No Madison November 22, This paper is considered an important document in American history for it lays out how the writers of the constitution defined the form of government that would protect minority rights from organized and united factions that intended to pass legislation injurious to the liberty of the minority or detrimental to the good of the country. Federalist Paper 10 is one of the most popular and recognizable of the collection. It is one of history's most highly praised pieces of American political writing. The paper itself was written by James Madison for the collection of papers arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Summary of Federalist 10 (Paragraph-by-Paragraph) Nov 22, Federalist Paper No. 10 (New York) This is the first essay by Madison in The Federalist.