Obviously, it goes without saying, all these photos have been influenced and framed by the researcher myself , and I have a particular goals in mind while taking these photos. However, by having a visual project, not only does it act as a reminder to the researcher of particular locations, moods, individuals they have interacted with during their research, but it also makes ethnographic research much more attainable and relatable to the public, in a way that a multiple page, multiple chapter thesis could never achieve.
A good place for a walk or even some jogging on the well-maintained paths and roads up and along the hills. Many kinds of trees and other plants, and a multitude of biting, stinging and also innocuous insects, often of vivid colors; the smells and aromas of the forest; bird song And a multitude of wild flowers as well.
This photo is of a flower of the King of Bitters or Creat, one of the most bitter plants in existence. As such it is used in much native medicine and before the advent of penicillin it's antibiotic effects were well-known. It's still today the subject of much research. Like many plants, this one, too, went through a range of name changes.
In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century it went by the name Justicia paniculata named for the Scottish botanist James Justice  , but then it was given its more directly descriptive name of Andrographis paniculata; the 'andrographis' is Latinised Greek for 'anther or stamen like a paintbrush' 'propter antheras penicellatas', as Nathaniel Wallich's flora for 'rare' Asian plants has it ; the 'paniculata' refers to the tufted inflorescences.
It was originally described for India e. It measures about 1 cm across and a tad more up-and-down. Descriptive Research Method Sitemap. Descriptive Research Method descriptive research Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how A form of conclusive research that aims to describe a product or market or identify associations among variables.
Reflection I took this photo of myself after writing my interview reflection. Whilst this question simply wants to measure the total number of calories i. If you are performing a piece of descriptive , quantitative research for your dissertation, you are likely to need to set quite a number of descriptive research questions.
Comparative research questions aim to examine the differences between two or more groups on one or more dependent variables although often just a single dependent variable.
Such questions typically start by asking "What is the difference in? Examples of comparative research questions include:. Groups reflect different categories of the independent variable you are measuring e. Overall, whilst the dependent variable s highlight what you are interested in studying e.
We have to be careful when using the word relationship because in statistics, it refers to a particular type of research design, namely experimental research designs where it is possible to measure the cause and effect between two or more variables; that is, it is possible to say that variable A e. However, at the undergraduate and even master's level, dissertations rarely involve experimental research designs , but rather quasi-experimental and relationship-based research designs [see the section on Quantitative research designs ].
This means that you cannot often find causal relationships between variables, but only associations or trends. However, when we write a relationship-based research question , we do not have to make this distinction between causal relationships, associations, trends and interactions i.
Instead, we typically start a relationship-based quantitative research question, "What is the relationship? Examples of relationship-based research questions are:. As the examples above highlight, relationship-based research questions are appropriate to set when we are interested in the relationship, association, trend, or interaction between one or more dependent e. The quantitative research design that we select subsequently determines whether we look for relationships , associations , trends or interactions.
To learn how to structure i. How to structure quantitative research questions. Types of quantitative research question Dissertations that are based on a quantitative research design attempt to answer at least one quantitative research question. Each of these types of quantitative research question is discussed in turn: Descriptive research questions Comparative research questions Relationship-based research questions. Descriptive research questions Descriptive research questions simply aim to describe the variables you are measuring.
We provide some examples below: How many calories do Americans consume per day? Daily calorific intake Group: How often do British university students use Facebook each week? Weekly Facebook usage Group: British university students Question: How often do male and female British university students upload photos and comment on other users' photos on Facebook each week?
Weekly photo uploads on Facebook 2. Weekly comments on other users? Male, British university students 2. Female, British university students Question: What are the most important factors that influence the career choices of Australian university students? Factors influencing career choices Group: Australian university students In each of these example descriptive research questions, we are quantifying the variables we are interested in.
What percentage of American men and women exceed their daily calorific allowance? What proportion of British male and female university students use the top 5 social networks? Use of top 5 social networks i. Female, British university students In terms of the first descriptive research question about daily calorific intake , we are not necessarily interested in frequencies , or using a measure of central tendency or measure of spread , but instead want understand what percentage of American men and women exceed their daily calorific allowance.
Comparative research questions Comparative research questions aim to examine the differences between two or more groups on one or more dependent variables although often just a single dependent variable.
Examples of comparative research questions include: What is the difference in the daily calorific intake of American men and women? Daily calorific intake Groups:
Descriptive research is used to answer descriptive research questions: What is happening? How is something happening? Why is something happening?
Descriptive research questions. Descriptive research questions simply aim to describe the variables you are measuring. When we use the word describe, we mean that these research questions aim to quantify the variables you are interested in.
Some examples of descriptive research include case studies and preliminary observation of a group. Case studies are examples of a relevant event that can be analyzed to learn about a specific group or topic. Observation is an essential part of descriptive research, and is the main way of gathering. There are three basic types of questions that research projects can address: secretsofengraving.tk a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. In this article, we discuss each of these four steps, as well as providing examples for the three types of quantitative research question you may want to create: descriptive, comparative and relationship-based research questions.