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Referencing and bibliographies

Language & Lit

❶Author last name, First initial. Depending on the kind of publication, the information contained for each item in the reference list may consist of any of the following:

Reference List: Basic Rules

Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay
Before you write
Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay

Any outside information used must be referenced in the essay via an in-text citation or footnote. For example with an APA-formatted essay, your parenthetical citation will include the last name of the author and year of publication.

Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author. Detailed information is important, including date, type of publication, volume and issue number and publisher information. Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website.

How to Write a Supported Opinion Essay. Accessed 14 September Last name, first name. An MLA scholarly article citation looks like the following: Last name, First name.

Write the title of the main work book, magazine, journal, website, etc. Chapter or article titles should be in quotation marks. Place your list of references in order alphabetically by the authors' last names. Alphabetize by the first letter that appears in the entry, whether it has an author name or not.

Format the Works Cited page. Double-space your document, and title this list of citations "Works Cited. Each entry should have hanging indent, meaning all lines below the first line are indented by half an inch. Make sure there is a period after each section of the citations.

A period should always end the citation. APA requires citations inside parentheses in the text of an essay, compiling them in an alphabetical References list at the end of a document. While you're writing an essay, it's important to cite information so that you avoid plagiarism a form of cheating.

Place a parenthetical citation at the end of every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't know before doing research. An in-text citation using APA will simply have the author last name or title if no author followed by the year it was published. No comma between name and year.

Richards Richards is the author last name, and is the year. If you have an author name or title if no author but no page number, simply use author last name or title. This is common when citing websites. APA document formatting is very important.

APA papers are divided up into 4 sections: Write down copyright information as you go for every piece of research you glean from. Write it down for every source you look at with a note to jog your memory--you'll be surprised how many ideas you start to paraphrase, unable to remember where you got that idea. To form APA reference page citations, you will need such information as author name s , date published, website URL, date you accessed the website, title of work, and so on.

The list of references should be alphabetized and set to hanging indent, just like MLA style format. For example, the format for an APA reference of a scholarly journal article is as follows: Author last name, First initial. Article or chapter title. Journal or book title, Issue number , page number range. Capital letter also for subtitle. The format for an APA website reference looks like: In Title of webpage or larger document or book chapter or section number.

Retrieved from URL address. Double-space your document, and title the references page "References" at the top-center of the page. Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters.

Only capitalize the first word of a journal article title, unless the title contains a proper noun called sentence case. Titles of books should preserve the published capitalization.

Capitalize the city of publication, and use correct state abbreviations for states. Also capitalize the name of the publisher and end the reference with a period. The title of larger works, whether a book, journal, website, or magazine, is in italics or underlined if handwriting , as is the issue number that appears right after the title.

All sources should be listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. If there is no author listed, use the title of the source. Kevin Clarkston, a freelance writer, is a recent graduate of Northwestern State University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts.

Since , he has written freelance articles for bi-weekly papers "The Light" and "The Real Views," as well as newsletter articles for the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training.

The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. Books are usually an excellent information source when researching a topic.

Books image by explicitly from Fotolia. Top 10 essay tips. Accessed 14 September Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Purpose of Writing an Essay.

How to Introduce Essay Writing.

Why reference?

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Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.

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The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer.

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The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. Though APA format is commonly followed in most reference essays, there are still a lot of ways on how you can include your sources in your writing. The APA Reference Generator below will automatically create and format your citations in the APA Referencing style. Simply enter the details of the source you wish to cite and the generator will do the hard work for you, no registration is required! To start referencing select the type of source you.

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Writing an essay is an unavoidable task for any high school or college student. While researching, notating and composing an essay may seem like a daunting prospect, there are simple steps one can. A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include: the editor and the title of the book; the first and last page numbers of the article or paper.