There are also many other definitions for stress. The word stress is used in a variety of different fields. In the Dictionary of Computing, stress is an acronym for Structural Engineering System Solver, which is used by computer programmers. Another definition found in Geology dictionary defines stress as being a force applied to a material that tends to change dimensions.
Finally stress is also used in the field of art. In a dictionary of Art stress is defined as the important significance or emphasis placed on something. I would say the Cambridge Dictionary give the best definition of worried or anxious, this would be my favorite definition.
I believe that this particular definition is the most common because it is how most people use the word stress. In this paper, we apply to stress testing a simple heuristic method proposed by Taleb The review paper examined recent evidence from studies of stress.
Historically, four main approaches in the area of stress research can be. This burgeoning area of research is challenging us to look beyond genetic. Interest on the subject, on stress and coping of Thai people were published; totaling from. What are the signs of stress?
What is job stress? Why is stress a problem? Is there a link. Through this research paper to know the reasons of stress among the bank. Advances in Applied Science Research, , 3 1: This paper discusses the stress, strain and coping mechanisms among. Research has shown that too much anxiety can negatively affect an athlete's sport.
Stress research paper words essay pages alternatives to fossil. Do you will be asked to write an essay. Discussion papers are research materials circulated by their authors for. Uk ashoka dhamma essay about myself centre for genotoxic stress research paper. Students incollege, for instance, often feel overwhelmed from having too many assignments or assignments that are too difficult. Additionally, they sometimes experience role ambiguity in poorly designed courses or from poor instructors and sometimesexperience role conflict from instructors who seem to believe that the students in their classes are not taking any other classes.
According to two surveys, the following stressors are particularly relevant for college students: Final grades Excessive homework Term papers Examinations Study for examinations Time demands Professors Class environment Among children and adolescents, transitions from one stage of schooling to another are major life events that can be significantstressors.
The transition from elementary school to junior high or middle school, for instance, can be a significant stressor. Stress Responses Although the presence of stressors does not mean that stress responses will necessarily follow, when they do, stress responsesare the way in which people react to stressors.
They are the experience of being stressed. Stress responses can be divided into three categories: Psychological Responses When people react to stressors, a wide variety of cognitive and emotional responses can occur. Examples of cognitiveresponses are as follows: Physiological Responses Physiological responses follow what is called the general adaptation syndrome. The GAS has three stages: The first stage, aarm, is basically the fight-or-flight response, the various physiological changes that prepare the body to attack r to flee a threatening situation.
The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is activated and prompts the release of two catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, from the adrenal medulla. Additionally, glucocorticoids like cortisol are releasedfrom the adrenal cortex.
The following examples of physiological changes characterizes the alarm stage: Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Rapid or irregular breathing Muscle tension Dilated pupils Sweating Dry mouth Increased blood sugar levels In the second stage, resistance, the body tries to calm itself and restrain the fight-or-flight response from the alarm stage. These changes allow people to deal with stressors more effectively over a longer period of time. When the body eventually runs out of energy from trying to resist stressors, the exhaustion stage takes over.
In this stage, the body admits defeat and suffers the negative consequences of the stressors, such as a decreased capacity to function correctly, less sleep, or even death.
Behavioral Responses People act differently when they are reacting to stressors. Sometimes, the behaviors are somewhat subtle, such as the following responses: Strained facial expressions A shaky voice Tremors or spasms Jumpiness Accident proneness Difficulty sleeping Overeating or loss of appetite Behavioral responses are more obvious when people take advantage of the preparatory physiological responses of the fight-or-flight response.
One side of the fight-or-flight response is that it prepares people to "fight", and people sometimes take advantage of that feature and behave aggressively toward other people.
Unfortunately, this aggression is often direct toward family members. After Hurricane Andrew devastated south Florida in , for example, reports of domestic violence doubled.
The other side of the fight-or-flight response is that it prepares people for "flight". The following behavioral responses are examples of how people try to escape threatening situations: Quitting jobs Dropping out of school Abusing alcohol or other drugs Attempting suicide Committing crimes 23; ; IV. A number of conscious and unconscious things occur in our inner world that determine whether a stressor in the external world will trigger our stress response.
These inner world happenings are referred to as mediating processes and moderating factors. Consider, for example, a person who discovers that his or her cat neglected to use the litter box. Whether or not this person appraises the problem as something he or she can establish control over may help determine whether he or she becomes angry. Mediating processes include appraisal and coping. Appraisal Once people become aware of a stressor, the next step is appraisal. How a stressor is appraised influences the extent to which stress responses follow it.
In fact, many stressors are not inherently stressful. Stressors can be interpreted as harm or loss, as threats, or as challenges. When stressors have not already led to harm or loss but have the potential to do so, it is usually less stressful for people if the stressors are seen positively as challenges rather than negatively as threats. The influence of appraisal does have its limits, though.
For example, although people who suffer from chronic pain tend to be able to enjoy more physical activity if they view their pain as a challenge they can overcome, appraisal does not matter if the pain is severe. Moreover, thinking negatively about the influence of past stressors is associated with a greater vulnerability to future stressors. Consider, for example, people with PTSD.
Among victims of sexual or physical assault with PTSD, those who have trouble recovering tend to have more negative appraisals of their actions during the assault, of others' reactions after the assault, and of their initial PTSD symptoms. An important aspect of appraisal is how predictable and controllable a stressor is judged to be.
Regarding predictability, not knowing if or when a stressor will come usually makes it more stressful, especially if it is intense and of a short duration. After a spouse passes away, for example, the other spouse tends to feel more disbelief, anxiety, and depression if the death was sudden than if it was anticipated weeks or months in advance. Similarly, during the Vietnam War, for example, wives of soldiers who were missing in action felt worse than did wives of soldiers who were prisoners of war or had been killed.
Regarding control, believing that a stressor is uncontrollable usually makes it more stressful. Alternatively, believing that a stressor is controllable, even if it really is not, tends to make it less stressful. When people are exposed to loud noises, for example, they tend to see it as less stressful when they are able to stop it, even if they do not bother to stop it. How much more stressful a stressor becomes from feeling a lack of control over it depends, however, on the extent to which the cause of the stressor is seen as stable or unstable, global or specific, and internal or external.
Stable and unstable causes represent causes that are enduring and temporary, respectively. Global and specific causes represent causes that are relevant to many events and relevant to a single occasion, respectively. Internal or external causes represent causes that are the result of personal characteristics and behaviors or the result of environmental forces, respectively. The more stable and global the cause of a stressor seems, the more people feel and behave as though they are helpless.
Likewise, the more internal the cause of a stressor seems, the worse people feel about themselves. Together, these feelings and behaviors contribute to a depressive reaction to the stressor. Consider, for example, a case in which a guy's girlfriend breaks up with him and he thinks that his love life is always in the dumps, that nobody really cares about him, and that he must not be a dateable guy.
Such an interpretation could contribute to a depressive reaction, such as him coming to the conclusion that he might as well not try because there is nothing he can do about it and that he is pretty much a lost cause. Coping After a stressor has been appraised, the next step, if necessary, is coping. How well people are able to cope with stressors influences the extent to which stress responses follow them. Coping strategies can be divided into two broad categories: Problem-focused coping involves trying to manage or to alter stressors, and emotion-focused coping involves trying to regulate the emotional responses to stressors.
Although people tend to use both forms of coping in most cases, the relative use of each of these forms of coping largely depends on the context. Problem-focused coping is more appropriate for problems in which a constructive solution can be found, such as family-related or work-related problems.
Alternatively, emotion-focused coping is more appropriate for problems that just have to be accepted, such as physical health problems. Moderating Factors Moderating factors influence the strength of the stress responses induced by stressors or the direction of the relation between stressors and stress responses.
Regarding the previous example about the cat and the litter box, how angry the person becomes after finding out that his or her cat neglected to use the litter box may depend on, for instance, how anxious or tense he or she is in general. Moderating factors include personality traits, health habits, coping skills, social support, material resources, genetics and early family experiences, demographic variables, and preexisting stressors.
Personality Traits Two general personality traits, positive affectivity and negative affectivity, are particularly relevant to stress. People who are high in positive affectivity tend to have positive feelings like enthusiasm and energy, feelings that characterize eustress.
People who are high in negative affectivity tend to have negative feelings like anxiety and depression, feelings that characterize distress. In particular, negative affectivity is associated with the ineffective use of coping strategies and susceptibility to daily stressors. Another personality trait relevant to stress is optimism, a general tendency to expect that things will work out for the best.
- Define stress: Stress is the body’s natural response to a threatening situation, and stress causes the release of hormones such as adrenaline, that prepare the body for its instinctual response to a threat: flight, fight or freeze.
Paper on stress 1. HUMAN RESOURCE TOPIC PAPER PRESENTATION “STRESS MANAGEMENT-AN OVERVIEW” BY- Swetha Shenoy (E) Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, DundigalABSTRACTStress is seen in every corner of the world and which occurs to everyone.
Essay on Stress: It’s Meaning, Effects and Coping with Stress! Meaning: Stress is a very common problem being faced today. Every individual will . The Effects of Stress Stress is an ongoing dilemma which occurs in everyone's life. It is a factor that is without a question apart of daily living.
Stress is the combination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions that people have in response to events that threaten or challenge them. Stress can be good or bad. Sometimes, stress is helpful, providing people . Read this essay on Stress Report Paper. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at secretsofengraving.tk".